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Grand Ducal Standards 1858-1918 (Baden, Germany)

Last modified: 2012-10-11 by pete loeser
Keywords: baden | grand duke | grand duchess | crown prince | cross (red) | coat of arms | canton (quartered) |
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Introduction

A new set of grand ducal standards were adopted 17th December 1891, according to Ströhl 1897 [stl97].
Santiago Dotor, 12 June 2001 and 18 June 2002

Ströhl 1897 [stl97] describes and illustrates the Baden standards in pp. 80-81 and table XIX, ills. XV through XVIII. It starts saying about them:

Laut Bekanntmachung im Staats-Anzeiger für das Grossherzogtum Baden, Nr. XXXIX, 30. Dezember 1891, wurden für die Mitglieder des Grossherzoglichen Hauses neue Standarten eingeführt. (ddo. Karslruhe, 17. Dezember 1891.)
i.e. "new standards for the members of the grand ducal house were introduced on 17th December 1891, published in the State Gazette for the Grand Duchy of Baden, no. 39, 30th December 1891".
Santiago Dotor, 18 June 2002


Grand Duke's Standard 1858-1891
Standarte des Grossherzogs 1858-1891

[Grand Duke's Standard 1858-1891 (Baden, Germany)] Image by Jaume Ollé
Flag adopted 1858, abolished 17th December 1891

White flag, in the center the great arms with black supporters, surrounded by the chain of the Order of Berthold. In use 1858-c.1897.
Norman Martin, May 1998


Grand Duke's Standard 1892-1918
Standarte des Grossherzogs 1892-1918

[Grand Duke's Standard 1892-1918 (Baden, Germany)] Image by Jaume Ollé
Flag adopted 17th December 1891, abolished 1918

Yellow flag with red cross (width 1/3 of flag's height). At the intersection the crowned lesser arms of Baden (yellow a red diagonal stripe), surrounded by the chain of the Order of Berthold. Abolished 1918.
Norman Martin, May 1998

Ströhl 1897 [stl97] shows this standard with a yellow field but the Baden escutcheon in it has a (metallic) golden field. The escutcheon is surrounded by the collar of the Hausorden der Treue, the Order of Loyalty of Baden's grand ducal house. The Order of Loyalty was founded by Margrave Charles II of Baden-Durlach on 17th June 1715 and was the highest Order of the Grand Duchy since its establishment in 1806.
Santiago Dotor, 18 June 2002


Standard of the Grand Duchess Luise (born Princess of Prussia) 1892-1918
Standarte der Grossherzogin Luise (geboren Prinzessin von Preussen) 1892-1918

[Standard of the Grand Duchess Luise 1892-1918 (Baden, Germany)] Image by Jaume Ollé
Flag adopted 17th December 1891, abolished 1918
[Note: the eagle on the sinister escutcheon should be the Prussian one, thus black not gold]

A yellow-red-yellow triband. On red stripe, slightly to the left and rotated 45 degrees, the lesser arms of Baden, slightly to the right and rotated 315 degrees, the lesser arms of Prussia, slightly above the center and overlapping top stripe, a royal crown. A square canton with height filling yellow stripe: quarterly black-white. Abolished 1918.
Norman Martin, May 1998

This flag appears in Neubecker 1933 [neu33], p. 46, ill. 155, as Standarte der verwitwete Grossherzogin Luise, geb.[oren] Prinzessin von Preussen i.e. Standard of Widow Grand Duchess Luise, born Princess of Prussia. I guess the reason is that she was actually the Grand Duchess at the time Ströhl 1897 [stl97] was published, becoming a widow at some point between 1897 and 1918. There are a couple of mistakes in the above image. The sinister escutcheon (ie. the shield on the right) should be the arms of Prussia, as they appear for example on the centre of the Prussian royal standard. Also the decoration hanging from both escutcheons appears to be a blue (not gold) cross pattée on Neubecker 1933 [neu33].

According to this webpage, Friedrich II was the son of Grand Duke Friedrich I (1826-1907) and Luise Marie Elisabeth of Prussia (1838-1923). I guess the latter used this standard during the reign of his husband and also after his death, hence the caption Standard of Widow Grand Duchess Luise, born Princess of Prussia in Neubecker 1933 [neu33].
Santiago Dotor, 12 June 2001

Ströhl 1897 [stl97], plate XIX, number XV, shows the standard of S[eine]r Königlichen Hoheit des Grossherzogs von Baden [His Royal Highness the Grand Duke of Baden]. That was in 1897 Frederick I (born 1826, reigned 1852-1907). He was married to the Prussian princess Luise (1836-1923, daughter of King William I, from 1871 German Emperor). Her standard appears in Ströhl 1897, plate XIX, number XVI. The decoration is the Luise cross, an order for women in honour of famous Queen Luise of Prussia, her grandmother after whom she was named).
Theo van der Zalm, 12 June 2001

Ströhl 1897 [stl97] shows this standard with a yellow field but the Baden escutcheon in it has a (metallic) golden field. Ströhl 1897 [stl97] points out two peculiarities on the standard of the Grand Duchess Louise —princess of Prussia, daughter of Emperor William I—. Firstly the Hohenzollern banner-of-arms depicted on the canton is mirrored: quarterly black and white (instead of quarterly white and black). Secondly, in the arms of alliance of Baden and Prussia, the escutcheon of Baden is not mirrored en courtoisie but depicted as usually. Here I would hypothesise that so as not to show a 'bend sinister Gules' for Baden which might be mistakenly interpreted as a mark of bastardy.
Santiago Dotor, 18 June 2002


Standard of the Heir Grand Duke and Duchess 1892-1907
Standard of the Grand Duchess Hilda 1892-1918
Standarte des Erbgrossherzogs und der Erbgrossherzogin 1892-1907
Standarte der Grossherzogin Hilda 1892-1918

[Standard of the Heir Grand Duke and Duchess 1892-1907, Standard of the Grand Duchess 1892-1918 (Baden, Germany)]     [Standard of the Heir Grand Duke and Duchess 1892-1907, Standard of the Grand Duchess 1892-1918 (Baden, Germany)]
Image by Jaume Ollé and Santiago Dotor     Image by Theo van der Zalm
Flag adopted 17th December 1891, abolished 1918

A [yellow] flag with red cross (width 1/3 of flag's height). At the intersection a crowned silver griffin holding a sword and the lesser arms. Below a white scroll. Abolished 1918.
Norman Martin, May 1998

This flag appears in Neubecker 1933 [neu33], p. 46, ill. 154, as Standarte der Grossherzogin Hilda i.e. Standard of Grand Duchess Hilda. (...) This webpage about Friedrich II, last Grand Duke of Baden who abdicated 1918 says he was married to Hilda Charlotte Wilhelmine of Nassau (b. 1864).
One more thing. Metallic (gold and silver) tinctures in coats-of-arms are usually 'converted' into yellow and white when they appear on a flag. At least in Ströhl 1897 [stl97] —who followed strictly the official models and usages— this appears not to be the case, as this Baden standard shows both gold and yellow. Also the central escutcheon in the Prussian standards were drawn as silver/grey not white — most noticeably in the standard for other members of the royal family which has a white field. (Anyway there is no general agreement on this. Flaggenbuch 1939 [neu39] for instance treats differently the same coat-of-arms when it appears on the Danish royal standard —metallic shades— and on the Greek one —yellow and white—.)
Santiago Dotor, 12 June 2001

Frederick, son of Frederick I and Luise of Prussia succeeded in 1907 as Frederick II, abdicated in 1918 and died in 1928. The succession passed to his cousin Maximillian and his son and grandson. Frederick II was married to Hilda of Luxemburg (1864-1954, daughter of Grand Duke Adolf). Ströhl 1897 [stl97], p. 81, says they both used the standard with the griffin, illustrated as number XVII (scan here). It seems that after her husband's accession, Grand Duchess Hilda kept on using the standard with the griffin while her husband of course took over the grand ducal standard. They had no children. Prince Max was the heir to the throne.
Theo van der Zalm, 12 June 2001

Ströhl 1897 [stl97] shows this standard with a yellow field but the Baden escutcheon in it has a (metallic) golden field. Moreover it shows a silver griffin, standing on a white scroll shaded in grey. Ströhl 1897 [stl97] explains however that the armorial design matches that shown in the guidons of the Baden cavalry. I guess Heir Grand Duke Frederick (who later reigned 1907-1918 as Frederick II) had some special relationship with the Baden cavalry but I have no further knowledge on the subject.
Santiago Dotor, 18 June 2002


Other Princes' and Princesses' Standard 1892-1918

[Other Princes' and Princesses' Standard 1892-1918 (Baden, Germany)] Image by Jaume Ollé
Flag adopted 17th December 1891, abolished 1918

A yellow-red-yellow triband. On red stripe, slightly overlapping the yellow stripes, the crowned lesser arms. Abolished 1918.
Norman Martin, May 1998

Ströhl 1897 [stl97], plate XIX, number XVIII, shows the standard used by other princes and princesses of Baden [yellow-red-yellow with the crowned lesser arms].
Theo van der Zalm, 12 June 2001

Ströhl 1897 [stl97] shows this standard with a yellow field but the Baden escutcheon in it has a (metallic) golden field.
Santiago Dotor, 18 June 2002


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