Last modified: 2013-02-24 by ivan sache
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National flag of Belgium - Image by António Martins, 29 December 1999
Flag adopted 23 January 1831, coat of arms adopted 17 May 1837.
Description: Vertically divided black-yellow-red.
Use: on land, as the civil and state flag.
Colour approximate specifications (Album des Pavillons [pay00]):
On this page:
The colours of the Belgian flag were taken from the arms of Brabant, a province in the former Low Countries (today Belgium and the Netherlands), which extended from the Walloon province of Walloon Brabant, over the Flemish provinces of Flemish Brabant (and Brussels) and Antwerpen, and up to the Dutch province of North-Brabant. The arms of Brabant show on a black field a yellow lion facing the viewer's left, with a red tongue and nails. The heraldic description (blazon) of these arms is "Sable a lion rampant or armed and langued gules".
The lion of Brabant features on the arms of the Kingdom of Belgium and the provincial arms of Walloon Brabant and Flemish Brabant, as well as on the arms of the Dutch province of North-Brabant.
Filip Van Laenen, 29 October 1997
According to information kindly forwarded by Michel Lupant no
exact date of issue can be found, but the proportions of 13:15
stem from a 19th Century directive of the Belgian Ministry of
Foreign Affairs which gave the official Belgian flag as being 2.60
metres high x 3.00 metres long. Flag in these proportions are, I am advised, occasionally to be seen on important Government buildings such as
Parliament, but (as we know) the vast majority (flown by both the
Government and civil population) are in 2:3.
Michel also knows of a few instances where 13:15 flags have been ordered and flown by foreign Governments when a Belgian Ambassador was presenting his credentials, but he himself only possesses a table model.
The first official drawing of the flag with vertical stripes (1831) has proportions 3:4.
Christopher Southworth, 18 August 2003
The 13:15 proportions are the "official" or constitutional one, while the 2:3 proportions are known as the "civilian" version. Ministries and other public buildings use the civilian version, but atop the Royal Palaces in Brussels and Laeken, the official one is always used.
When I was Director of Logistics for the Foreign Ministry, we started offering embassies the official version as well as the civilian one. On my official residence in Jerusalem, we fly the official version.
There is an added but unmentioned advantage to the 13:15 proportions: in strong winds the flag will show less wear and tear at the downwind vertical edge since it moves less.
A problem with the colour is that in an era of uniformization, the yellow tends to become darker, under the influence of the German flag where it is "gold".
The Foreign Ministry used the data from the FOTW website a few years ago to indicate precisely to the manufacturer and supplier which tint of yellow was the right one.
Guido Courtois, Consul General of Belgium in Jerusalem, 16 February 2005
The 1:1 proportions are fine theoretically, only people in Belgium would be very surprised ("everyone knows the Belgian flag is not a square but a rectangle", they would say). The 13:15 proportions may be the official ones but this fact is largely unknown.
Jan Mertens, 19 August 2003
The protocol manual for the London 2012 Olympics (Flags and Anthems Manual London 2012 [loc12]) provides recommendations for national flag designs. Each NOC was sent an image of the flag, including the PMS shades, for their approval by LOCOG. Once this was obtained, LOCOG produced a 60 x 90 cm version of the flag for further approval. So, while these specs may not be the official, government, version of each flag, they are certainly what the NOC believed the flag to be.
For Belgium, PMS 116 yellow, 186 red. The vertical version is simply the flag turned through 90 degrees clockwise, black on top.
Ian Sumner, 10 October 2012
Flags with horizontal stripes were used in a first revolution (Brabantine Revolution), in December 1789 when the Belgians unsuccessfully raised against the Hapsburgs (Austrians). On a drawing showing those flags, the colours are arranged red-black-yellow. However, the first true Belgian national flag, horizontally divided red-yellow-black was adopted in 1830.
On 23 January 1831 the Belgian Provisional Gouvernment decreed the following:
The provisional government of Belgium
In view of the report and the proposal by the Committee on external relations,
considering that the Belgian People have adopted red, yellow and black as its colours; that these colours are borne by the Belgian army; that it is important to determine what will be the merchant flag:
Art. 1. The Belgian merchant flag is red, yellow, and black. These colours are placed vertically.
Art. 2. The present decision is to be transmitted to the Administrator General of the War Ministry, to the consuls and the various harbour captains.
In Article 124 of the Belgian Constitution of 4 February
1831 no order of colours was given. On 15 September 1831 the Department
of the Navy decreed:
Black must be placed on the hoist, yellow in the middle and red on the fly.
A similar dispatch was released by the Department of the Interior on 12 October 1831.
However, according to Roger Harmignies (Belgique : Les drapeaux d'honneur de 1830, Vexillacta [vxl] #3 (March 1999), pp. 7-8), flags with vertical stripes and flags with horizontal stripes coexisted in Belgium for a few years (see for instance the 1830 Honour flags with horizontal stripes). The last official flags with horizontal stripes were seen on 24 September 1838 during the inauguration of the war memorial on Place des Martyrs in Brussels. Here again, the use of flags with horizontal stripes was deliberate.
The Belgian national flag was last confirmed on 28 January 1936.
Mark Sensen, Jan Mertens, & Ivan Sache, 25 May 2006
In a painting from c. 1832 of the Post Office Packet P.S.
Salamander and the topsail schooner Union off Ostend,
there are two flags flying from buildings on shore:
- The Belgian flag with the red and black reversed;
- A dark blue flag with a red canton.
David Prothero, 30 November 1999
Quoting an article published (originally in Dutch) in De Standaard, 2 November 1999:
Black, yellow, red, starting from the pole. That's how we've always known the Belgian flag. But if you read the Constitution, this isn't correct, says Karel Rimanque, professor at the University of Antwerp. Article 193 of the so often revised Constitution still says:
The Belgian Nation chooses as its colours red, yellow and black.
Rimanque: "In 1830 too, they used to describe the flag starting from the pole. Thus, our flag is different: red at the pole, yellow in the middle, and black at the fly." Does this mean that the Constitution has been broken for all 168 years? Was it interpreted wrongly at the beginning and did nobody ever notice the error? "Anyway, either we have to correct this article, or we have to correct our flag." says Karel Rimanque.
Filip Van Laenen, 2 November 1999
National flag on Royal palaces - Image by Ivan Sache, 18 July 2001
An unusual Belgian flag in proportions 4:3 is described by L. Nyssen in
Vexillacta [vxl] #3, March
L. Nyssen and other careful flagspotters have noticed that the Belgian flags hoisted over the Royal palaces in Brussels and Laeken are higher than wider in proportion, and particularly large in size.
After more than three years of investigations (!), L. Nyssen finally received on 23 December 1998 a letter from the Commander of the Royal Palaces. The letter states that the flag hoisted over the palace of Brussels is 4 x 3 m, whereas the flag hoisted over the palace of Laeken is 3.2 x 2.4 m. Excluding those giant flags, the largest official Belgian flag has a 2.6 x 3 m size. These flags are manufactured by the Logistic Service of the Army in the basis of Peutie, located near Vilvoorde.
The exaggeration of the dimensions of the flags is based on aesthetical considerations. Due to the size of the buildings on which they are hoisted, they are viewed from far below. The statues of the Gothic cathedrals and several huge monuments follow the same "artistic" rules. Therefore, the above image seems rather strange, but the picture of the palace of Brussels shown in Vexillacta seems very normal.
A note by Pascal Parent published in Vexillacta
[vxl] #12 (June 2001) explains the
rules for hoisting these flags.
The national Belgian flag shall be hoisted over the palaces of Brussels and Laeken when the King is present on the Belgian territory (but not necessarily present in one of the palaces).
The flag shall be removed only when the King has to go abroad for an official visit or summer vacation. In such instances, the flag shall be removed as soon as the King leaves the national territory and hoisted again as soon as he enters the national territory.
Last year, following a heavy heart surgery, the King started his convalescence in the South of France. Since it was considered that he was still able to exercize all his powers, even if he was physically not present on the Belgian territory, the flags were not removed from the palaces.
Ivan Sache, 18 July 2001